Muhammad Ali Jinnah, also known as Quaid e Azam (meaning “Great Leader” in Urdu), was a lawyer, politician, and statesman widely regarded as the founder of Pakistan. He was born on December 25, 1876, in Karachi, a part of the British Indian Empire. Jinnah became one of the leading figures in the Indian independence movement and played a crucial role in creating the independent state of Pakistan in 1947.
Early Life and Education of Quaid e Azam
Jinnah was the eldest of seven children born to Jinnahbhai Poonja, a prosperous merchant, and his wife, Mithibai. He received his early education at the Sindh Madrasa-Tul-Islam and the Christian Mission School in Karachi. In 1892, he enrolled at Bombay University and studied law at the Lincoln’s Inn in London.
Political Career Quaid e Azam
Jinnah began his political career in 1906 when he joined the Indian National Congress, a political party dedicated to achieving self-government for India. However, he later left Congress and joined the All India Muslim League, a political party representing the interests of Muslims in India. Jinnah became the leader of the Muslim League in 1913 and worked to unite the Muslim community in India under the party’s banner.
Relation Between Quaid e Azam and Gandhi
During the 1920s and 1930s, Gandhi and Jinnah worked together on various issues, including the non-cooperation movement and the civil disobedience campaign. However, they began to have differing opinions over the issue of Muslim representation in Congress. Gandhi believed in a united India and argued that Muslims should be treated as equals within Congress. On the other hand, Jinnah argued that Muslims needed separate representation to protect their rights and interests.
During the 1930s and 1940s, Jinnah led the Muslim League in its efforts to secure a separate Muslim state in the northwestern and northeastern regions of India. He argued that Muslims, who made up a minority of the population in India, would not be able to live in peace and security under a Hindu-dominated government. In 1940, the Muslim League adopted the Lahore Resolution, which called for the creation of an independent Muslim state in India’s northwestern and northeastern regions.
The Independence of Pakistan:
After years of negotiations and political maneuvering, India gained independence from British rule on August 15, 1947. However, the country was partitioned into two separate states: India and Pakistan. Jinnah became the first Governor-General of Pakistan and played a crucial role in establishing the new government.
Jinnah faced many challenges as the leader of Pakistan, including the mass migration of Hindus and Muslims between the two countries, the integration of various ethnic and linguistic groups, and the establishment of a functioning government. He died on September 11, 1948, just over a year after the creation of Pakistan.
Jinnah is remembered as a visionary leader and a champion of the rights of Muslims in India. He is credited with leading the struggle for the creation of Pakistan and is revered as the “Father of the Nation” in Pakistan. In India, he is remembered as a prominent figure in the independence movement and is admired for his leadership and dedication to the cause of democracy.
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a remarkable leader and statesman who played a crucial role in the creation of Pakistan. His efforts to unite the Muslim community and secure a separate state for Muslims in India are remembered and celebrated to this day. His birthday, December 25, is a national holiday in Pakistan and is celebrated as Quaid-e-Azam Day.